Digestive Health Associates

Southwest Endoscopy Center

Patient's Medical Library

The material provided on this website is for general informational purposes only.
If you need specific medical advice, please contact our office for an appointment.

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Basic GI Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy of the Digestive Tract (from Wikipedia)

This anatomical drawing shows the major organs of the GI tract.  An important organ which is not identified is the midsection of the small intestine, the jejunum, which is downstream from the duodenum (section of small intestine as it leaves the stomach) and upstream of the ileum (section of small intestine entering the colon).  The colon is also called the large intestine.

The esophagus conveys swallowed solids and liquids to the stomach.  The stomach secretes digestive acid and enzymes which are mixed into food matter by the stomach's grinding function.  The stomach's processed matter is then delivered to the duodenum, where bile and pancreatic fluids are added.

  Absorption of nutrients (fat, protein, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals) occurs in the small intestine.  Absorption of water and electrolytes occurs in the large intestine (colon).

Index of Information About Specific Diseases, Conditions or Treatments


Abdominal pain (functional dyspepsia) in adults from UpToDate
Achalasia from UpToDate
Anal fissure from UpToDate


Barrett's esophagus

-Monitoring and treatment of Barrett's esophagus from UpToDate


Calcium and vitamin D for bone health from UpToDate

Celiac disease (sprue)

-Celiac disease from UpToDate
-Celiac Disease Foundation
-Celiac Sprue Association
-Prometheus Celiac Plus
Gluten-Free Living available in Durango at Nature's Oasis
  Living a Gluten-Free Life!  Gluten-Conscious Diet and the King Soopers/City Market available at City Market
-Sources for uncontaminated oats:  Gluten Free Oats | Cream Hill | Bob's Red Mill | Gifts of Nature
See our Books of Interest Page for a reading recommendation related to this subject
Cirrhosis from UpToDate

Clostridium difficile (Antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile) from UpToDate

Collagenous colitis from the National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse

-Microscopic Colitis from the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America
Colon polyps from UpToDate

-Guidelines for Screening and Surveillance
Colon cancer

-What You Need To Know About Cancer of the Colon and Rectum from the National Cancer Institute
Colorectal cancer screening:  questions and answers from the National Cancer Institute 
Screening for colon cancer from UpToDate 
Treatment of rectal cancer from UpToDate
-Treatment of colon cancer from UpToDate
Hereditary cancer testing at Myriad Tests
Constipation in adults from UpToDate

Crohn's disease

-Crohn's disease from UpToDate 
-Inflammatory bowel disease and pregnancy from UpToDate 
-Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America brochures
-Crohn's & Me 

-Acute diarrhea in adults from UpToDate
Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (Clostridium difficile) from UpToDate
-Chronic diarrhea in adults from UpToDate
Dictionary of Cancer Terms from the National Cancer Institute

Diet and health from UpToDate
Diet and FODMAPs (see FODMAPs below)

-Fiber Intake Calculator
-Fiber recommendations
Diverticulosis and diverticulitis

-Diverticular disease from UpToDate
Dyspepsia from UpToDate
-Iberogast is available at Seacoast Vitamins and eVitamins
Eosinophilic esophagitis from the American Partnership For Eosinophilic Disorders

Eosinophilic esophagitis from the Children's Digestive Health and Nutrition Foundation and The International Gastrointestinal Eosinophil Researchers (TIGER)


Fecal incontinence from UpToDate
Fiber recommendations

FODMAPs - Low FODMAPSs Diet  from the Gastroenterological Association of Australia
FODMAPs - Low FODMAPs Diet from Shepherd Works
FODMAPs - detailed review  
Gibson PR, Shepherd SJ.  Evidence-based dietary management of functional gastrointestinal symptoms: The FODMAP approach.   Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.  2010.
See our Books of Interest Page for a reading recommendation related to this subject

from UpToDate

Gas and bloating from UpToDate

Gastroesophageal reflux disease in adults (GERD) from UpToDate

-Bedge Foam bed wedge (recent searches suggest that this product, which helped many patients, is no longer available)

-MedCline Foam bed wedge (designed for side sleepers)
Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI) medications (Prilosec®, Prevacid®, Aciphex®, Protonix®, Nexium® and generics)
Gilbert's syndrome from UpToDate

Helicobacter pylori infection and treatment from UpToDate

Hemochromatosis from UpToDate

Hepatitis from UpToDateAutoimmune | Hepatitis B | Hepatitis C

Hemorrhoids from UpToDate

-Hemorrhoid treatments that can be performed during colonoscopy
Hemorrhoid treatment aftercare

Hiatal hernia from MedicineNet.com

Irritable bowel syndrome from UpToDate
See our Books of Interest Page for a reading recommendation related to this subject

Ischemic colitis (read to bottom of linked CCFA page)

Lymphangiectasia, intestinal from eMedicine

Lymphocytic colitis from the Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America

Melanosis coli from Wikipedia

Microscopic colitis from the Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) from UpToDate

Obesity from UpToDate: 
Weight loss treatments | Weight loss surgery

-Body Mass Index (BMI) Calculator from Center for Disease Control and Prevention
Body Mass Index (BMI) Calculator from the New York Times Health
-Calorie Calculator for Goal Weight from the New York Times Health
Pancreatitis from UpToDate:
Acute pancreatitis | Chronic pancreatitis

Peptic ulcers from UpToDateHelicobacter pylori infection and treatment | Peptic ulcer disease

-Probiotics from the AGA Patient Center

-Align® Bifidobacter infantis 35624
Culturelle® Lactobacillus GG
Florastor® Saccharomyces boulardii
Phillip's Colon Health® Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacteria longum
VSL#3® Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus
Proton Pump Inhibitors
Ulcerative colitis
-Ulcerative colitis from UpToDate
See our Books of Interest Page for a reading recommendation related to this subject
-Living with Ulcerative Colitis from Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America (CCFA)
-Acerca de la Colitis Ulcerosa from CCFA
-Inflammatory bowel disease and pregnancy from UpToDate
-Sulfasalazine and the 5-aminosalicylates from UpToDate
-Surgical treatment from UpToDate

-List of CCFA Brochures

-Remicade for Ulcerative Colitis

Wilson's disease
from the National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke

Educational Sites of Interest

American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases | Your Liver

American College of Gastroenterology | Patient Information

American Gastroenterological Association | Patient Center
American Liver Foundation | Download ALF Materials
Association of Cancer Online Resources

Clinical Trials
Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America

DestinationRx - Prescription Drug Information
Lab tests online
Mayo Clinic health site
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine
National Digestive Disease Information Clearinghouse - Index of Topics and Titles
New York Times Health
PubMed National Library of Medicine
Radiology Info - American College of Radiology & The Radiology Society of North America
UpToDate for Patients - Consult the medical information resource doctors trust
Your Disease Risk
Your right to make health care decisions - Living wills and related information for Colorado residents

Medication Search

Enter the name of your medication to access detailed information about the drug:

Epocrates Online

UpToDate for Patients Search

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National Library of Medicine Search

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